References, outlines and keywords (nog niet gecorrgeerd)
Bij de referenties in dit overzicht, wordt meestal en outline gegeven. Voor zover dat niet uit de titel is af te leiden, weet men dan beter waarover het gaat.
De keywords zijn niet alleen bedoeld voor de referentie zelf, maar kunnen ook worden gebruikt als zoekwoorden voor Internet. Een combinatie van zoekwoorden van een of meer referenties, al dan niet in combinatie met een auteur, geeft via Internet toegang tot meer informatie. Vooral informatie van officiële instellingen, universiteiten en wetenschappelijke tijdschriften is vaak goed bruikbaar voor opdrachten binnen het minor, major en masterniveau. Ook de woorden uit de referentietitel kunnen als zoekwoord worden gebruikt.
 
Anderson, L.M. & H.W. Schroeder (1983). Application of wildland scenic assessment methods to the urban landscape. Landscape Planning 10: 219-237.
  OUTLINE: One of the most widely recognized benefits of urban vegetation is its contribution to the visual quality of the city landscape. The aesthetic enhancement trees provide is translated into economic support for the landscaping and nursery, and higher property values within a community. Because urban forestry and other tree-related programs must operate within increasingly stringent budget constrains, it is important to develop an understanding of all the benefits of urban vegetation, so that what monies are available for management can be used effectively to increase these benefits.
 
Aoki, Y., Y. Yasuoka & M. Naito (1985). Assessing the impression of street-side greenery. Landscape Research 10 (1): 9-13.
  OUTLINE: In recent years, people in Japan have become aware of the importance of amenity in the living environment. In urban areas, greenery is a most important component of pleasant environments and is now eagerly sought particularly in high density residential areas. To satisfy this requirement, master plans of green environments are now proposed by many local administrations. In this study, residents ‘impressions were correlated with the percentage of green in photographs (taken with 28 and 85 mm focal distance) of the area. This useful approach needs to be developed and refined to produce more realistic measures of the amount of green perceived and assess its impact on respondents as they walk along the streets
 
Attorre, F., M. Bruno, F. Francesconi, R. Valenti & F. Bruno (2000). Landscape changes of Rome through tree-lined roads. Landscape and Urban Planning 49: 115-128.
  OUTLINE: This article demonstrates that there is a strong link between the specific cultural and political period and the trees-species used in Rome since 1870.
 
Attwell, K. (2000). Urban land resources and urban planting, case studies from Denmark. Landscape and Urban Planning 52 (2-3): 145-163.
  OUTLINE: Trees benefit urban communities environmentally, aesthetically and recreationally. This raises the question of whether Denmark 's towns have enough space for more trees. The research project aimed to demonstrate the potential for integrating current planning practice in Denmark and the information on the urban physical environment, thus integrating planning and implementation. This integration is often the weak link in urban development.
 
Austin, M & R. Kaplan, 2003. Identity, involvement, and expertise in the inner city: some benefits of tree-planting projects. In: S. Clayton & S. Opotow (Eds.). 2003. Identity and the natural environment: The psychological significance of nature. The MIT Press, Cambridge, pp. 205-225.
  OUTLINE: The authors look at people involved in tree-planting programs. The context for this chapter is vacant lots in Detroit , Michigan . Tree-planting projects have transformed both these lots and the appearance of the neighborhoods. Along with these physical transformation came many other changes: citizens who engaged in community activities, people who learned from playing leadership roles , and individuals who came to have e new sense of who the are and what they can contribute. Thus tree-planting projects serve to explicate the interplay among involvement, expertise, and identity.
 
Beckett, K.P., P.H. Freer-Smith & G. Taylor (1998). Urban woodlands: Their role in reducing the effects of particulate pollution. Environmental Pollution 99 (3): 347-360.
  OUTLINE: Due to their large leaf areas relative to the ground on which they stand and the physical properties of their surfaces, trees can act as biological filters, removing large numbers of airborne particles and hence improving the quality of air in polluted environments. The role of vegetation and urban woodlands in reducing the effects of particulate pollution is reviewed In this article.
 
Beckett, K.P., P.H. Freer-Smith & G. Taylor (2000). Effective tree species for local air-quality management. Journal of Arboriculture 26: 12-19.
  OUTLINE. The presented study aims to identify trees from 5 contrasting species that maximize the benefit to local air quality. Results show that all trees examined captured large quantities of airborne particulates, from the health-damaging size fractions Coniferous species were found to capture more particles than did broad-leavesTrees situated close to a busy road captured significantly more material from the largest particle size fraction than those situated at a rural, background site.
 
Beckett, K.P., H.E. Stewart, S.M. Owen, S.M. Mackenzie & C.N. Hewitt (2005). Particulate pollution capture by urban trees: effect of species and windspeed. Global change biology 6: 995-1003.
  OUTLINE: The aim of the present study was to quantify the effectiveness of five tree species - pine ( Pinus nigra var. maritima ), cypress ( ×  Cupressocyparis leylandii ), maple ( Acer campestre ), whitebeam ( Sorbus intermedia ), poplar ( Populus deltoides  ×  trichocarpa 'Beaupré') - in capturing pollutant particles. This was achieved by exposing them to NaCl droplets of approximately 1  µ m diameter at a range of windspeeds in two windtunnels. The finer, more complex structure of the foliage of the two conifers ( P. nigra and C. leylandii ) explained their much greater effectiveness at capturing particles. The data presented here will be used to model the effectiveness of tree planting schemes in improving urban air quality by capturing pollutant particles.
 
Beer, R. (1996). The role of trees in the urban environment, the example of Geneva. Arboricultural Journal 20 (4): 437-444.
  OUTLINE: Trees fulfil essential social, aesthetic, cultural and educational, biological climatic and genetic functions. Man has a powerful symbolic empathy with the tree. Away from the forests and henceforth master of nature, man continues nevertheless, to surround himself with trees and so to remind himself that he is also part of the natural world. In the light of this, the green areas and environment department of the city of Geneva must progressively modernise the administration of the municipal parks. The ecological balance must be improved and these same areas made more available to the users, so as to improve the social balance.
 
Bell, S. (1997). Fountains of life. Landscape design 261: 21-23.
  OUTLINE: Trees bear a silent witness to the events of centuries, The provide a strong setting for the everyday events of history and a place to hide.
 
Beutler, A., & C. Herfort (1995). Altbäume in der Stadt. Stadt und Grün 44 (7): 501-506.
  OUTLINE: Thousands of animal species are living in old hollow trees. This fact is supported by numerous documents dealing with forestry and general ecology, but documents dealing with conservation of such trees hardly occur. This paper highlights the ecological significance of old trees in cities and offers ideas for conservation and alternatives for old tree's habitats.
 
Bright, I. , R. Hesch, N. Bentley & S. Parrish (2001). A study of the potential for developing a biomass fuel supply from tree management operations in London. Arboricultural Journal 25 (3): 255-288.
  OUTLINE: This paper sets out the results of work undertaken by Econergy Ltd and the London Tree Officers' Association with support from the BioRegional Development Group to investigate the potential for developing a supply of biomass fuel for renewable energy production from woody material generated by arboricultural operation in London.
 
Bingley A & C. Milligan (2004). Climbing trees and building dens: mental health and well-being in young adults and the long-term effects of childhood play experience. Research Report, Institute of Health Research, Lancaster University. pp. 79 p.
  This report complements the Forestry Commission's ‘Newlands' Project, which aimed to identify wasteland urban areas or abandoned rural woodland that can be developed into accessible, recreational woodland and maintained over time by supported local community groups. In order to understand the potential benefits of these developments, the Commission has been sought to gain a greater understanding of how lack of accessible woodland play areas may impact on the health and well-being of children and young adults. In particular, there is a critical knowledge gap about the relationship between changes in childhood play space and the long-term implications for young people's mental well-being (Burgess, 1996; Macnaghten et al., 1998). This is especially so, where children are deprived access to natural woodland spaces, or discouraged from going into local woodland areas. The aim of this study has been to redress the current lack of evidence-based research around these issues. Two major conclusions emerge from this study. First, for this group of young people their experience of childhood play space does have an impact on their mental health and well-being in young adulthood. Second, woodland and forest can provide certain ‘therapeutic' qualities that a young adult may use to alleviate stress and mental health problems.
 
Buringh, E & A. Opperhuizen A (Eds) (2002). On health risks of ambient PM in the Netherlands. Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, Den Haag, pp.70.
  OUTLINE: Particulate matter in ambient aire can lead to health effects and even to premature mortaluty. This result has been found in a score of epidemiological studies, bus its cause in not yet clear. It is certain, however, that these effects are so serious and so extensive that further action is warranted.
 
Buijsman E., J.P. Beck, L. van Bree, F.R.Cassee, R.B.A. Koelemeijer, J. Matthijsen, R. Thomas & K. Wieringa (2005). Fijnstof nader bekeken: de stand van zaken in het dossier fijn stof. Milieu en Natuurplanbureau, Wageningen. Rapportnr. 500037008 pp.63.
   
Coley, R.L., F.E. Kuo & W.C. Sullivan (1997). Where does community grow?. The social context created by nature in urban public housing. Environment and Behavior 29 (4): 468-494.
  OUTLINE: This study examines trees influences the use of outdoors public spaces in two public houses developments. Spaces with trees attracted larger groups of people, as well more mixed groups of youth and adults, than did spaces devoid of nature. In addition, more dense groupings of trees and trees that are located close to public housing buildings attracted lager groups of people. Natural elements such as trees may promote opportunities for social interactions.
 
Daniel, T.C. & M.M. Meitner (2001). Representational validity of landscape visualizations, the effects of graphical realism on perceived scenic beauty of forest vistas. Journal of Environmental Psychology 21: 61-72.
  OUTLINE: The purpose of this chapter is to provide an overview of contemporary landscape quality assessment method. These methods are: the ecological, formal aesthetical, psychophysical. Psychological and the phenomenological model. A part of the conclusion is: At the present time, none of the described completely meets all the goals of landscape quality assessments.
 
Donovan, R.G. H. E. Stewart, S. M. Owen, A. R. MacKenzie, and C. N. Hewitt (2005). Development and application of an urban tree air quality score for photochemical pollution episodes using the Birmingham , United Kingdom , area as a case study. Enviromental Science and Technology 39 (17): 6730-6738.
  OUTLINE: The effects of trees on urban air quality in scenarios of high photochemical pollution has been examined. The combined effects of both pollutant deposition to and emission of biogenic volatile organic compounds from the urban forest are considered, and the West Midlands , metropolitan area in the UK is used as a case study. Of the 30 species considered, pine, larch, and silver birch have the greatest potential to improve urban air quality, while oaks, willows, and poplars can worsen downwind air quality if planted in very large numbers.
 
Dwyer, J.F., H.W. Schroeder & P.H. Gobster (1991). The significance of urban trees and forest, towards a deeper understanding of values. Journal of Arboriculture 17 (10): 276-284.
  OUTLINE: Trees and forest play a significant role in the urban environment and have many important meanings to ur ban residents. Many time it is restricted in terms of a few fairly simple dimensions of their significance to urbanities such as beauty, shade, cooling or contribution to global gas balances. The authors suggest a broader perspective is needed, one that takes into consideration the deep psychological ties between people and ur ban trees and forest. In this paper the authors outline some major ties they have found, and they suggest their implication for management of arboricultural programs.
 
Fang, C.F. & D.-L. Ling (2003). Investigation of the noise reduction provided by tree belts. Landscape and Urban Planning 63 (4): 187-195.
  OUTLINE: This study investigated the noise reduction effect of 35 evergreen-tree belts.
 
Førtoft, I. & J. Sageie (2000). The natural environment as a playground for children, landscape description and analyses of a natural playscape. Landscape and Urban Planning 48: 83-97.
  OUTLINE: This study indicated a strong relation between landscape structure and play functions. Diversity in landscape elements such a vegetation and topography might be considered a dimension of quality for a natural playscape. This playscape comprised the ground for training of motor fitness in children. Through all-round playing and exploring the natural playscape the children's motor fitness was improved. The proved the learning effects from a natural playscape on children's motor abilities.
 
Fraser, E.D.F. & W.A. Kenney (2000). Cultural background and landscape history as factors affecting perceptions of the urban forest. Journal of Arboriculture 16 (6): 106-113.
  OUTLINE: The authors are dealing with cultural factors affecting perception op urban forest. As people from all over the world live in Canadian cities, it was hypothesized that people with different cultural backgrounds would have different perceptions of urban forest. The research concerns British, Chinese, Italian and Portuguese communities. Three landscape histories have been identified: British, Chinese and Mediterranean . These cultural differences are largely consistent with the traditional use of trees in British, Mediterranean and Chinese landscaping, and appear to be maintained among North American immigrant populations.
Freeman, C. (1995). Planning and play: creating greener environments. Children's environment 12 (3): 381-388.
OUTLINE: Sustainable development has its fundamental aim the preservation of the environment for future generations. Planners are grappling with the implications of sustainable development and means to maintain the natural resources base. Whilst planners wrestle with the critical need to preserve environmental quality, ultimately environmental responsibility will be passed on to the next generations. As children learn through play, it is vital that the environments in which they grow up and in which they play provide them with opportunities for developing environmental awareness in all aspects of their life, not just in formal education environments. Environmental awareness is too important to be relegated to a school based curricular component. Children's environments as a whole must become environmentally friendly, and provide opportunities for deepening understanding, interacting with and manipulating both the natural and built environment.
Freer-Smith, P.H., A. A. El-Khatib and Gail Taylor (2004). Capture of particulate pollution by trees: a Comparison of Species Typical of Semi-Arid Areas ( Ficus Nitida and Eucalyptus Globulus ) with European and North American species. Water, Air & Soil pollution 155 (1-4): 173-187.
OUTLINE:  Recently a variety of approaches using both wind tunnel and field measurements have suggested that trees can significantly reduce such adverse effects through their ability to capture pollutant particles. The authors relative deposition velocities and capture efficiencies of five species used widely in woodland of urban and periurban areas of Europe ( Quercus petraea (oak), Alnus glutinosa (alder), Fraxinus excelsior (ash), Acer pseudo-platanus (sycamore) and Pseudotsuga menziesii (Douglas fir)), and for two species being used increasingly in semi-arid regions, ( Ficus nitida (weeping fig) and Eucalyptus. globulus (Eucalyptus)). Species with more complex stem structure and smaller leaves had greater relative deposition velocities. The use of such data in models to guide species choice and planting design in order to maximise particle removal from urban air are considered.
Frumkin, H. (2005).Trees and human health, building the evidence base. In, Gallis, C.T. (Ed.), Forests, trees, and human health and well-being. Proceedings 1 st European COST E39 Conference. Siokis, Thessaloniki, pp. 7-21.
OUTLINE: There is evidence that some kinds of environmental exposures, including contact with trees, may have positive health effects. This paper contributes to a discussion by reviewing the potentials benefits of trees for human health and well being. The question asked is how do we know about these benefits?...... A collaboration between tree researches and clinical epidemiologists offers great promise for filling these data gaps, though well designed, carefully executed studies. Such research will deepen our understanding of the human relationship with trees, increase the reverence we feel for nature, and help us improve human health.
Gälzer, R. (2001). Grünplanung für Städte. Ulmer, Stuttgart, pp 408.
OUTLINE: This handbook contains all aspects of urban green/nature planning.
Gold, S.M. (1986). User characteristics and response to vegetation in neighbourhood parks. Arboricultural Journal 10 (4): 275-287.
OUTLINE: users in six neighbourhood parks were asked to describe their response to the landscape character of each park. Parks with a more informal, natural and diverse landscape character have a more positive influence on levels of users satisfaction than those with a less natural, more formal and sterile landscape character. An approach to park design and management is possible which uses trees in stead of turf as dominant landscape feature to provide a relatively natural contrast to the surrounding residential area.
Hansen-Møller, J. (2003). The millennium gardens. Landscape Journal 22 (1): 25-35.
OUTLINE: The purpose of this paper is to examine the current state of the relationship between culture and nature in Denmark through philosophical reflection on the similarities and differences among territory landscape, map, and plan as exemplified by the Millennium Garden project. The Millennium Gardens are ome-kilometer squares of land outlined by a perimeter of oak trees.
Hanyu, K. (2000). Visual properties and affective appraisals in residential areas in daylight. Journal of Environmental Psychology 20: 273-284.
OUTLINE: The present study examines multiple relationship within and between visual properties and affective appraisals. A part of the conclusion is: The evaluative dimensions related to the natural open dimension positively. The positive relationship between an evaluative response and the degree of openness and naturalness has found support by many researchers, especially those who have ecological-oriented ideas. They have argued that individuals prefer environments with more openness and natural elements. The finding in this paper supported this view .
Hartig, T., G.W. Evans, L.D. Jamner, D.S. Davis & T. Gärling (2003). Tracking restoration in natural and urban field settings. Journal of Environmental Psychology 23: 109-123.
OUTLINE: The authors compared psychological stress recovery and directed attention in natural and urban field settings using repeated measures of ambulatory pressure, emotion, and attention collected from 112 randomly young adults. First and foremost, the results speak to widely held beliefs that natural surroundings aid the physical and psychological restoration of people living in cities, and illustrate how everyday settings can hinder or support these different forms of restoration. For urban populations in particular, easy pedestrian and visual access to natural settings can produce preventive benefits. Public health strategies with a natural environment component may have particular value in this time of growing urban populations, exploding health care expenditures, and deteriorating environmental quality.
Harvey, M.R. (1989). Children's experiences with vegetation. Children's Environment Quarterly 6 (1): 36-43.
OUTLINE: Children's early contact with vegetation may play a part in the formation of their environmental dispositions. This question is examined as a part of multivariate analysis by recording the past experiences with vegetation of 845 eight to eleven year-old children and describing them according to gender, age and socio-economic status. Children attitudes to vegetation and their environments dispositions are measured and correlated. The results indicate that the variety and enjoyment of past experiences with vegetation contribute positively to children's general attitude to vegetation and their ‘Pastoralism' score, negatively to their score on ‘human dominance over nature'
Heerwagen, J.H. & G. Orians (1986). Adaptations to windowlessness: a study of the use of visual decor in windowed and windowless offices. Environment and Behavior 18 (5): 623-639.
  OUTLINE: This research examines the use of visual material to decorate windowed and windowless offices. The result of this study underscore people's apparent strong need for contact with nature in some form. The number of landscapes and nature –dominated visual materials in the windowless office spaces in this study clearly indicates that people want to see the natural world even if the contact is a surrogate one provided by posters and paintings. This study suggests that visual contact with the natural world may be more crucial to the psychological comfort of office occupants than has been suspected.
Heft, H. (1988). Affordance of children's environments: a functional approach to environmental descriptions. Children's Environments Quaterly 5 (3): 29-37.
OUTLINE: This paper presents a functional approach to describing the psychological resources of children's outdoor environments. The approach is based on Gibson's theory of affordances. (The affordances of the environment are what it offers the animal, what it provides or furnish either good or ill. Affordances are therefore the possibility for action to an observer by an object in the environment. Objects have instantly detectable functions and are perceived in terms of what they afford, not what properties or qualities they have. Examples of affordances are listed. The principle finding of this study is that the neighbourhood, school and town centre can all support both social interaction and retreat behaviours.). A functional taxonomy of environmental features is offered. The purpose of this paper was to suggest a new way of thinking about children's environments. Ideally the type of framework propose in this paper can help to stimulate future research in understanding children environment transactions, and perhaps to facilitate in some measure the design of environments for children.
Henwood, K. & N. Pidgeon (2001). Talk about woods and trees, threat of urbanisation, stability, and biodiversity. Journal of Environmental Psychology 21: 125-147
OUTLINE: This article reports on an investigation into the importance, significance and value to people of woods and trees, making special reference to the symbolic space they occupy in people's personal worlds and within their local community and cultural environments. The research establishes that woods and trees are important to people at personal, local, community, cultural levels.
Herzog, T.R. & T.A. Gale (1996). Preference for urban buildings as a function of age and nature context. Environment and behavior 28 (1): 44-72.
OUTLINE: Preference for urban buildings were studied as a function of building age and natural context. The primary finding was that old buildings were preferred over contemporary buildings when building care was equated statistically, but the reverse was true in the absence of such control. A natural context enhanced building preference, but only when it was well maintained. In general, rated building care and nature care were positively related to preference and to each other.
Herzog, T.R. (1989). A cognitive analysis of preference for urban nature. Journal of Environmental Psychology 9: 27-43.
OUTLINE: This study examines preferences for urban environments with substantial natural elements and test the general usefulness of the Kaplan information model in such settings (1998). The overall preference for nature content was evident from the higher preference for the nature-related perceptual categories.
Herzog, T.R., S. Kaplan & R. Kaplan (1982). The prediction of preference for unfamiliar urban places. Population and environment 5 (1): 43-59.
OUTLINE: This study explored preference of how people categorize unfamiliar settings using four variables, complexity, coherence, identifiability, and mystery. Areas low in coherence and high in complexity are not preferred, while the role of mystery, in urban settings is highlighted by the most preferred urban nature category.
Himanga, K.H., D.A. Jones, G.C. Steinman, K.D. Widin (2001). Community tree planting guide. Tree Trust, Saint Paul, pp. 215.
OUTLINE: This paper is on community forestry. It offers guideline for people how working together to enhance their community by planting and caring for trees and shrubs.
Hove, L.W.A., van (2006). De invloed van de geplande groengebieden nabij de N201 op de achtergrondconcentratie van fijnstof. Alterra, Wageningen. 21 p.
OUTLINE: In order to improve air quality the author reviewed literature and examined the possibilities using trees to mitigate particulate pollution.
Hull , B.R., M. Lam & G. Vigo (1994). Place identity, symbols of self in the urban fabric. Landscape and Urban Planning 28: 109-120.
OUTLINE: The purpose of this study was to explore the conceptual empirical nature of place identity so that it might be better understood, made more tangible, and ultimately inform environmental design and planning decisions.
Hull , R.B. & A. Harvey (1989). Explaining the emotional people experience in suburban parks. Environment and Behavior 21 (3): 323-345.
OUTLINE: As is evidenced by presence of numerous parks and gardens there seems to be a shared belief that natural park experiences are good for people. This article suggests that the quality of recreation is related to the quality of the emotion experienced in the recreation setting. The specific physical characteristics in this study are tree spacing, the density of understory grows such as brush, shrubs, and grasses, and the presence of pathways.
Hutchings, T.R. (2002). The establishment of trees on contaminated land. Arboricultural Journal 26: 359-376.
OUTLINE: This paper is aimed at making community foresters, planners and developers aware of: (1)The extent of contaminated land; (2) The viability, implications, and benefits of tree establishment on contaminated land; (3) Current research that will provide a systematic framework for assessing the feasibility, risk and benefits of tree establishment on contaminated land.
Im, S.B. (1984). Visual preferences in enclosed urban spaces, an exploration of a scientific approach to environmental design. Environment and Behavior 16 (2): 235-262.
OUTLINE: This study suggests that visual quality of an enclosed urban place can be predicted from the linear combination of three ratio variables: ground slope, height ratio and vegetation coverage. Implications for design practice have been given. Designers should not rely only on their naive assumptions of users' preference for physical settings. They should be provided with more scientific and systematic bases for their decision making on aesthetic and visual aspects in design.
Jim, C.Y. (1987). Urban trees in Hong-Kong, benefits and constraints. Arboricultural Journal 11: 145-164.
OUTLINE: Much of urban Hong-Kong is poor in environment quality and lacking in amenity vegetation. The quality of life in the city can be improved by providing for more trees as well as reducing atmospheric pollution. The many benefits and functions of greenery in an urban setting, including those on aesthetics, psychological development of children, mental health and amelioration of climatic extremes and air pollution, are discussed in the local context.
Johannsmeier, E. (1985). Über die Notwendigkeit von Naturerfarungen bei kleinen Kindern. Das Gartenamt 34 (11): 792-800.
OUTLINE: The author argues the significance of nature experience for children, describes features related with naturalistic sites
Johnston, M. (1983). Urban trees and ecological approach to urban landscape design. Arboricultural Journal 7: 275-282.
OUTLINE: The increasing concern for the quality of life in urban areas, particularly in the inner cities, has led to a growing awareness among arboriculturists of the functional value of urban trees. From the limited perspective of the ornamental value of the specimen tree has developed a wider appreciation of the contribution of urban forests to improving environmental quality. This article is dealing with ecological aspects of urban trees.
Johnston, M. (1985). Community forestry, a sociological approach to urban forestry. Arboricultural Journal 9 (2): 121-126.
OUTLINE: Trees can play a vital role in the welfare of urban communities. Their unique ability to control many of the damaging effects of city environments significantly improves the quality of urban life. The social and psychological benefits of urban trees are not limited to their aesthetic form nor simply experienced through casual observation. Urban residents with their own trees and gardens are able to experience the benefits of involvement in the process of arboriculture. The aim of urban forestry is to improve the welfare of urban residents; the planting and care of trees is a means to end in itself. Much of the social and psychological value of an urban forest depends on resident involvement in the planting and care of trees.
Johnson, G.R. & J. Monear (1994). A child's view of the urban forest. Journal of Arboriculture 20 (6): 336-340.
OUTLINE: For one week in June, one hundred twenty elementary school children were involved in a co-operative study to provide some insight on the roles that the urban forests play in a young person's life. All regions and grade levels had a high percent age of their photographs with trees in them. Most residential buildings were shade, by something; most parks and playgrounds had trees present. The fact that the children in the very urban, heavily developed inner city and the children in the largely agronomic rural area chose to photograph in or near areas with trees is notable. Trees are influencing these young lives.
Kaplan, R. (1983). The role of nature in the urban context. In: I. Altman & J. F. Wohlwill (Eds.), Behavior and the natural environment. Plenum Press, New York, pp. 127-161.
OUTLINE: The author reviews the researches on the impact of urban nature on well-being. At many places, throughout history, people have shown a special interest in the natural environment. The purpose of this paper is to explore some of the ways in which the urban natural environment can contribute to human well-being. The focus is on the common, everyday aspects of nature, the trees and grass, bushes and flowers that can be seen from home or the trip to work.
Kaplan, R. (1980). Citizen participation in the design and evaluation of a park. Environment and Behavior 12 (4): 494-507.
OUTLINE: Post-design evaluations can be useful for two quite different pupposes. One of these involves the generic information that is gained – in other words, in terms of applicability to other settings at other times. The other is in terms of a better understanding of the existing facility and its needs and improvements. Related to this second area are the potential benefits of such a process to the participating community.
Kaplan, R. & S. Kaplan (1989). The experience of nature, a psychological perspective. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 340.
OUTLINE: An extent review of two decades research into effects of natural environments on people in different circumstances. Such as: landscapes, parks, wilderness, residential area, nearby nature, prison. For understanding how nature works, this book may very useful for landscape architects, horticulturists, foresters, planners. managers of green areas.
Kaplan, R. (1993). The role of nature in the context of the workplace. Landscape and Urban Planning 26 (1/4): 193-201.
OUTLINE: The well-being of the workforce is clearly a matter of concern to the employer. Such concern translates to considerable costs in the form of fringe benefit packages, health promotion programs, ergonomics, and other ways to reduce absence and enhance health and satisfaction. Proximity and availability of natural environment can foster many desired outcomes, even if the employee does not spend a great amount of time in the natural setting. The focus of the studies presented here is on windows in the workplace. A view on nature such as trees may improve the condition of the workplace. This correspondents with previous results of other studies. Whether one can place an economic value on the view from work in terms of work productivity is an unanswered question.
Kaplan, R., S. Kaplan & L. Ryan (1998). With people in mind, design and management of everyday nature. Island Press, Washington, pp. 225.
OUTLINE: A translation of environmental psychological research to more practical guidelines for planning natural areas and planting design. “This book is about nature, but it is also about people. Is about the way the natural environment can foster well-being and can enhance people's ability to function effectively. The underlying purpose of the book is to explore the design and management of nearby natural areas in ways that are beneficial for people and appreciated by them.” . The book emphasis everyday, often unspectacular, natural environment: parks, open spaces, street trees, vacant lots and backyards gardens, window views, as well as fields and forest .
Konijnendijk, C.C. (2002). The urban face of forestry. EFI-News 10 (1): 3-6.
OUTLINE: "Our forests are increasingly showing their urban face. Even the most remote forests of Europe are confronted with the specific demands of an urbanised society. Urban dwellers are looking for their "great escape 'from their daily environment, roaming on foot, by bike or in their four-wheel drive. Even when not actively using forests, the have a clear opinion about what should be done with them. the reality for forestry professional and scientists is to come to term with this urban side of their profession" (Konijnendijk, C.C., 2002).
Kuo, F.C., M. Bacaicoa & W.C., Sullivan (1998). Transforming inner-city landscapes, trees, sense of safety, and preference. Environment and Behavior 30 (1): 28-59.
OUTLINE: How would inner-city resident's response to the incorporation of trees and grass in their neighbourhoods. Previous research and analysis suggest that landscaping has the potential to transform inner-city neighbourhoods – the potential to mitigate the negative environmental impacts of urban development, providing relief from crowding, provide more humane play space for children etc. The barren common space in this study evoked neither liking nor a sense of safety; in contrast participants responded quite positively to images spicing the space with well-maintained grass and a high density of trees, and the effects of greening on both preference and sense of safety ratings were dramatic.
Kuo, F.E. & W.C. Sullivan (2001). Aggression and violence in the inner city, effects of environment via mental fatigue. Environment and Behavior 33 (4), 543-571.
OUTLINE: This article is dealing with effects of nature on population in inner city with high rates of aggression. Residents living in relatively barren buildings reported more aggression and violence than did their counterparts in greener buildings. Levels of mental fatigue were higher in barren buildings, and aggression accompanied mental fatigue. This study indicated that nature at de doorstep might be important for quality of life.
Kuo, F.E. & W.C. Sullivan (2001). Environment and crime in the inner city, does vegetation reduce crime?. Environment and Behavior 33 (3), 343-367.
OUTLINE: This study suggests that residents in greener surroundings report lower levels of crime: “the greener a building's surroundings were, the fewer crimes reported.” This corresponds with other studies that indicate a lower lever of fear, fewer incivilities, and less aggressive and violent behaviour.
Kuo, F. (2001). Coping with poverty: impacts of environments and attention in the inner city. Environment and Behavior 33 (1): 5-34.
OUTLINE: Urban public housing residents ( USA ) face a sea of troubles (poverty). Do environmental designers and environmental design researches have anything to contribute? This study examines whether trees and grass may helpful in restoring more favourable mental conditions. This study indicated that residents living in buildings without nearby trees and grass reported more procrastination if facing their major issues and assessed their issues as more server, less soluble, and more longstanding than did their counterparts living in greener surroundings.
Kuo, F.E. (2003). The role of arboriculture in a healthy social ecology. Journal of Arboriculture 29 (3): 148-154.
OUTLINE: Evidence from studies in inner-city Chicago suggest arboriculture contributes to the health of the social ecosystem. Social indicators included stronger ties among neighbours, greater sense of safety and adjustment, more supervision of children in outdoor spaces, healthier patterns of children's play, more use of neighbourhood common spaces, fewer incivilities, fewer property crimes, and fewer violent crimes.
Kuo, F.E., & A.F. Taylor (2004). A potential natural treatment for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Evidence from a national study. American Journal of Public Health 94 (9): 1580-1586.
OUTLINE: The impact of relatively "green" or natural settings on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms across diverse subpopulations of children has been examined. Parents nationwide rated the aftereffects of 49 common after-school and weekend activities on children's symptoms. Green outdoor activities reduced symptoms significantly more than did activities conducted in other settings, even when activities were matched across settings. Findings were consistent across age, gender, and income groups; community types; geographic regions; and diagnoses. Green outdoor settings appear to reduce ADHD symptoms in children across a wide range of individual, residential, and case characteristics. Zie: ook
Lawrence, R.J. (2003). Human ecology and its applications. Landscape and Urban planning 65: 31-40.
ABSTRACT: Human ecology generally refers to the study of the dynamic interrelationships between human populations and the physical biotic, cultural and social characteristics of there environment and the biosphere. Human ecology is a term that's has been and still is characterised by a lack of consensus about what it means. This paper presents some key concepts and principles that stem from a wide range of contributions. Then it indicates in which way ecological concepts can be used to understand human settlements. People-environment relations are multidimensional and complex. No single discipline or perspective can understand and explain these relations in a comprehensive way. Therefore collaboration and co-ordination of contributions is necessary. Today the main obstacle that hinders an integrated framework is the compartmentalised disciplinary focus of scientists and professionals who do not share definitions and interpretations but adopt exclusive interpretations.
Lynch, K. (Ed.), (1977). Growing up in cities: studies of spatial environment of Adolescence in Cracow , Melbourne, Mexico City. Salta, Toluca, and Warszawa. Mitt Press, Cambridge, pp. i-vii; 177.
OUTLINE “Urbanization often involves hardships and sometime is the young who have the heaviest burden of all to bear. This book adopts an angle of approach which tends to bee overlooked: How do children and adolescents themselves feel about “growing up in Cities”?” [“The hunger for trees is outspoken seemingly universal. Landscaping should be as essential a part of the basic infrastructure of a settlement as electricity, water, sewers, and paving. Children can join in landscaping their neighbourhood. Planners, designers, and environmental managers will have to become more concerned with children's needs. Observations and research should be part of the design process. The child client, if accessible, should be asked to evaluate the existing environment and to participate in the design construction of settings specifically intended of children.”] (p.57).
Lohr, V. & H. Pearson-Mims (2002). Childhood contact with nature influences adult attitudes and actions toward trees and gardening. In, Shoemaker, C.A. (Eds.), Interaction by design, bringing people and plants together for health and well-being. Iowa State Press, Iowa, pp. 267-277.
OUTLINE: This study indicate that childhood experiences with nature influence adult sensitive to trees and that the influence is very strong. By understanding the relationships between childhood experiences and current attitudes towards trees in urban areas, we can better understand the influence of childhood participation in tree planting and gardening programs on the perspectives of those same children as adults.
Lohr, V.I., C.H. Pearson-Mims, J. Tarnai & D.A. Dilleman (2004). How urban residents rate and rank the benefits and problems associated with trees in cities. Joural of Arboriculture 30 (1): 28-35.
OUTLINE: The objectives addressed in the paper are e to (1) assess the knowledge and attitudes of urban residents regarding trees in cities, (2) assess how much urbanites agree that trees are important to their quality of life, (3) determine whether demographic factors influence this response, and (4) determine whether people's attitudes toward trees and quality of life influence their attitudes toward other characteristics of urban trees. People in large metropolitan areas across the United States appreciated a wide range of reasons for planting trees in cities, including environmental (to reduce smog), social (to calm people), and esoteric (to make interesting sounds) reasons. The highest-ranked reason for using trees was for shade and cooling. The next most important was for their calming effect. Using trees to reduce dust, smog, and noise were also considered quite important. The rankings could be used by people planning campaigns to promote citizen acceptance of urban tree programs by focusing on these more highly rated values.
Lohr, V.I. & C.H. Pearson-Mims (2006). Responses to scenes with spreading, rounded, and conical tree forms. Environment and Behavior 38 (5): 667-688.
OUTLINE: In this study, people responded very positively to the presence of trees in urban settings. Their emotional responses were related to their preferences, with people reporting feeling happier, friendlier, more attentive, less angry, less sad, and less fearful when looking at the preferred urban scenes with trees than when looking at the same urban scenes with inanimate objects instead of trees. Is also showed that people respond more positively (feeling happier and having lower diastolic blood pressure, for example) to trees with a spreading shape, similar that of savanna trees, than to trees with rounded or conical forms. People also appeared to respond more positively to trees with denser canopies.
Loon, A. van (2003). Ruimte voor de stadsboom; betekenis, groeiplaatsinrichting, sortiment, methodiek, beleid. Blauwdruk, Wageningen, pp. 127.
OUTLINE: Urban trees being significant for well being, increasingly grow in unfavourable conditions because a lack of space. Consequently remarkable and fascinating trees and amazing avenues are becoming more and more rare. The book containing many figures, pictures and schemes, provides many suggestions and guidelines for sustainable development of urban trees.
Luttik, J. (2000). The value of trees, water and open space as reflected by house prices in the Netherlands. Landscape and Urban Planning 48: 161-167.
OUTLINE: Houses in attractive settings will have an added value over similar, less favourably located houses. The most influential environmental attribute in the study is the presence of water features. Water is a highly prized element in the landscape. Also green in the residential area was shown to attract a premium in a number of cases.
MacKay, M.B. (1992). A quantitative approach to the description of the qualities of ornamental plants, with particular reference to plant use in the rural environment. In, D. Relf (Ed.), The role of horticulture in human well-being and social development. Timber Press, Portland, pp. 113-116.
  OUTLINE: The ability to facilitate positive change in the environment requires knowledge and understanding of interaction among people, plants, and the environment. Knowledge of the individual elements of the relationship is required to understand their interaction. This paper presents a progress report on a research program that considers some of these elements and interactions. Plants will be assessed for their landscape values by groups of people with varying expertise and their reaction to specific plant quantified. The authors propose that the knowledge gained from this study van be developed into a capacity for positive influence on the landscape and may ultimately be used to raise awareness of the use of trees in the landscape, there by leading to significant environmental improvement.
Mader, G. & L. Neubert-Mader (1996). Bäumen; Gestaltungsmittel in Garten, Landschaft und Städtebau. Deutsche Verlags-Anstalt, Stuttgart, pp. 220.
OUTLINE: The book reviews a wide range of applications of trees in different types of landscape, especially European landscapes. It contains many pictures and schemes.
Mao, L.S., Y. Gao & W.Q. Sun (1993). Influences of street tree systems on summer micro-climate and noise attenuation in Najing city, China. Arboricultural Journal 17 (3): 239-251.
OUTLINE: This article examines the influences of two street tree systems, deciduous and mixed coniferous/deciduous tree system, on the micro-climate and noise attenuation in Nanjing City , China . The four street trees used in this study represented two street tree systems and two 30m and 40m width. The height and width of green space in both systems permitted the comparisons of micro-climates and the capacity of noise attenuation. The summer micro-climates of the four street were closely associated with each of the tree systems.
Martin, F.E. (2002). Access for all. Landscape architecture 92 (6): 44-48, 95.
OUTLINE: The article is about street reconstruction of the famous Euclid Avenue at Cleveland ( Ohio ).
McPherson, E.G. & J.R.Simpson (2002). Potential energy savings in buildings by an urban tree planting programme in California. Urban Forestry and Urban Greening 2: 73-86.
The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of: existing trees on state-wide and regional energy consumption for space heating and cooling and peak electricity demand; future tree planting on state-wide and regional energy for space heating and cooling and peak electricity demand; regional differences on annual energy savings, peak load reductions, and cost-effectiveness. Tree canopy cover data from aerial photographs and building energy simulations were applied to estimate energy savings from existing trees and new plantings in California . Approximately 177.3 million trees in energy conserving locations shelter buildings and moderate urban climates. As a result, utilities save $ 485.8 million annually in wholesale electricity purchases and generation costs
McPherson, E.G. (1992). Accounting for benefits and costs of urban green space. Landscape and Urban Planning 22: 41-51.
OUTLINE: The contribution of vegetation to improving the climate, air, hydrology and quality of life in cities is well documented. However, efforts to preserve natural areas, acquire new green space, initiate plantings, and manage existing green space resources frequently hampered by our inability to fully appraise the environmental services green space (i.e. the urban forest) provides. Recent budget cuts to municipal forestry programs in Cities (USA) suggest the need for more persuasive arguments to justify adequate funding for green space management. This paper reviews traditional accounting frameworks such as cost-effectiveness and benefit-cost analysis, and economic approaches used to estimate benefits produced by urban green space.
Misgav, A. (2000). Visual preference of the public for vegetation groups in Israel. Landscape and Urban Planning 48: 143-159.
OUTLINE: To ensure the effective planning and management of future landscapes, it is necessary to understand how people perceive their environment. The objectives of the present study were to develop and test an evaluation method to be used in classifying visual qualities of select native planted forests and other vegetation groups in Israel, and to rate the degree of visual preference by selected groups of uses for these vegetation groups. Landscapes with wooden species forming a more or less open structure were preferred to those with a block field of vision.
Neal, P. (1994). Green values. Landscape Design 227: 36-38.
OUTLINE: This paper is daeling with ecomomic, ecological and psycological value of urban parks and trees.
Nelson, P., J.Nelson & D. Larkin (2000). The treehouse book. Universe, New York, pp. 224.
OUTLINE: This book shows a wide variety of tree houses in America . It is dealing with constructions and the choice of trees and the meaning of tree houses.
Nelson, T., T. Johnson, M. Strong & G. Rudakewich (2001). Perception of tree canopy. Journal of Environmental Psychology 21: 315-324.
OUTLINE: Deciduous tree canopy was investigated in relation top perception of fecundity and visual attractiveness. Trees with the strongest canopies have been assessed the most attractive.
Orland, O., J. Vining & A. Ebreo (1992). The effect of street trees on perceived values of residential property. Environment and Behavior 24 (3): 298-325.
OUTLINE: Numerous researchers have documented the values of urban trees. These values include beatification, shade, wildlife, habitat, erosion control and air purification. It is widely agreed that many of those values are either intangible or at least very difficult to measure. Nevertheless, they are important to urban an suburban residents and result in numerous disputes between cities, landowners and individuals over the costs of provision, maintenance, and removal of trees from urban and sub urban streets. The results of this study suggest, however, the need for more caution in ascribing economic value to suburban street trees and for more research into the processes people use in weighing the risks and the benefits of tree plantings.
Owak, J.D., D.E. Crane, & J.C. Stevens (2006). Air pollution removal by urban trees and shrubs in the United States. Urban Forestry & Urban Greening 4: 115-123.
OUTLINE: Modeling study using hourly meteorological and pollution concentration data from across the coterminous United States demonstrates that urban trees remove large amounts of air pollution that consequently irnprove urban air quality Integrated studies of tree effects on air pollution reveal that management of urban tree canopy cover could be a viable strategy to improve air quality and help meet clean air standards.
Polzin, W.P. (2004). Zur Zukunft der Alleen: Eins ‘neues' Sicherungs- und Entwicklungsmodell. Stadt und Grün 53 (3): 46-50.
OUTLINE: [Towards avenues' future: a new conservation and development model]. OUTLINE: In relation to traffic security the future of German avenues is discussed from the historical and actual viewpoint, and the meaning of avenues reviewed in order to safe and develop these landmarks.
Price, C. (2003). Quantifying the aesthetic benefits of urban forestry. Urban Forestry & Urban Greening 1: 123-133.
OUTLINE: (This paper shows the problems of the aesthetic values of urban trees). All the usual methods for valuing non-market benefits and costs may be applied to the aesthetic values of urban trees. However, evaluation has most usually been undertaken by one of two apparently dissimilar methods. This paper reviewed the application of such valuation methods to the aesthetic benefits of urban and peri-urban trees and woods, giving brief and indicative examples of six approaches. It examines two further apparently contrasting approaches, “Expert” evaluation (see gloss.) and hedonic pricing (see gloss.).
Rance, C. (1997). Trees for tows. Landscape design 261: 17-19.
OUTLINE: This article is dealing with the societal value of woodland. The author argues that trees can provide an attractive setting for the most built-up areas.
Ross, N. (2004). “That tree used to be everything to us”: the importance of natural and unkempt environments to children. In: OPENspace. Open space: people space an international conference on inclusive outdoor environments. 27 - 29 October 2004, Edinburgh, UK. pp. 6.
Most children conveyed strong attachments to their local area, naming and describing many favourite places, relating a definite sense of belonging and an ability to make their own space. Important in this process was their use of natural and unkempt areas, environments that facilitated active and imaginative play. Part of the attraction of these spaces lies in their marginal status, they are part of the local environment, however they are spaces often disregarded by adults in their everyday routines and as such are outwith adults' gaze. This research clearly conveys the ways in which children were able to make such spaces into play environments.
Schroeder, H.W. & S.R. Ruffolo (1996). Householders evaluations of street trees in a Chicago suburb. Journal of Arboriculture 22 (1): 35-43.
OUTLINE: Residents were surveyed about the street trees in the front of homes and in their neighbourhoods. The survey assessed residents' satisfaction with the benefits and annoyances they received from the trees; the trees, size, shape, and growth rate; and the diversity of tree species and sizes in their neighbourhoods. De benefits were much more important than the annoyances.
Schroeder, H.W. & T.L. Green (1985). Public preference for tree density in municipal parks. Journal of Arboriculture 11 (9): 272-277.
OUTLINE: There is little information on what the right density of trees is for park landscape. Is the an ‘optimal' density, so that planting too many trees would actually decrease the scenic quality of the park landscape? To answer this question, we must turn to the user and potential users of the park and learn how the trees found the park affect their perception and preferences. The results suggest that the estimates of optimal tree density presented may be used as a guideline for park tree replacement. Estimates such as these should be regarded as general guidelines of landscape design and management, rather than as precise prescriptions. The spatial arrangement of trees with respect to each other and to the features of the park may have important influences on scenic beauty, and deviations from the optimal density may enhance the appearance of the park by producing variety and special effects.
Schroeder, H.W. (1986). Estimating park tree densities to maximize landscape esthetics. Journal of Environment Management 23: 325-333.
OUTLINE: One question that may arise in managing the physical landscape concerns the amount of some specified feature that will be most attractive. For example, trees are obviously an important feature of park landscapes, but it mat not always be true that “more trees are better”. That is, there may be an esthetical optimum number of trees for a park landscape and, if that optimum is exceeded, the landscape will be less attractive. This paper applies and compares two approaches for using environmental perception ratings to estimate optimal aesthetic tree densities in parks.
Sheets, V.L. & C.N. Manzer (1991). Affect, cognition and urban vegetation, some effects of adding trees along city streets. Environment and Behavior 23 (3): 285-304.
OUTLINE: In order to assess the effects of vegetation on peoples cognitive classification of places subjects were asked to rate vegetated of non vegetated scenes on 12 cognitive characteristics. Vegetation affected subjects' emotional and cognitive experiences of the urban settings. Vegetated scenes generated positive affect and positive evaluations of the quality of life in the area, and they were also rated less industrial than the non-vegetated scene. These findings suggest that vegetation can significantly alter people's experiences of places, but concerns over their generalizability to “real” settings are pertinent. The subjects reported more positive feelings when viewing tree-lined city streets; they felt friendlier, more co-operative, less sad, and less depressed.
Simmons, D.A. (1994). Urban children's preferences for nature: lessons for environmental education. Children's Environments 11: 194-203.
OUTLINE: The focus of this study was on urban children's preferences for the natural environment. The goal was to describe how urban children view natural setting, what seems to interest them most, how they differentiate environments, and what seems to worry them about visiting nature. The results suggest that children perceive distinct differences in nature settings. The school site and urban nature photographic groups elicited the highest preference ratings and were by far the settings, which most exemplified the built environment. The children do like and are fascinated by nature. Trees, various animals, open space, and the presence of water seem to be particularly enjoyed. Deep woods, which illustrated ‘wild' nature, was given the lowest preference ratings. The children in this study had also worries about Potential nature hazards (physical danger), people (kidnapping), and inconveniences (availability of facilities).
Simon, B. (2000). A review of notable yew trees in Ireland. Arboricultural Journal 24 (2,3): 97-137.
OUTLINE: This article reviews accounts of notable yew trees in Ireland to examine the history of interest un these trees and to consider likely ages. Many yew in Ireland are associated with historic landscapes, past events and traditions, leading to a belief that these trees are of exceptional age. The stories and traditions that surround massive yews reflect the importance that the species has for many people and, whatever their truth, stories that stimulate interest in trees and our relationship with the environment are to be valued.
Simon, B. (2000). Tree traditions and folklore from Northeast Ireland. Arboricultural Journal 24 (1): 15-40.
OUTLINE: A study of tree traditions and folklore in parts of Northern Ireland has identified may urban and rural sites where trees have historical, cultural or spiritual importance. Many of these trees are know only to local communities and have not preciously been described in detail. Comparison is made with traditions in the British Isles and the associations of particular tree species with specific traditions are examined.
Simpson, J.R. & E.G. McPherson (1996). Potential of tree shade for reducing residential energy use in California. Journal of Arboriculture 22 (1): 10-18.
OUTLINE: Electric utilities in California currently sponsor planting of approximately 75.000 yard trees as an energy conservation measure. This study evaluate the potential effects of tree shade on residential air conditioning and heating energy use for a range of tree orientations, building insulation levels and climate zones in California using computer simulation. Positive effects have been suggested and recommendations are made regarding locating yard trees to maximize energy savings.
Smardon, R.C. (1988). Perception and aesthetics of the urban environment, review of the role of vegetation. Landscape and Urban Planning 15 (1/2): 85-106.
OUTLINE: This paper is a review of the role that urban vegetation plays in regard to human behaviour and perception of urban environments. It reviews the functions or benefits of urban vegetation to human use. The second section of the paper will review these various functions as they have been documented at different urban scales ranging from whole cities or urbanizing regions to street-scape or specific places such as parks.
Sommer, R., F. Learey, J. Summit & M. Tirrell (1994). Social benefits of resident involvement in tree planting, comparison with developer-planted trees. Journal of Arboriculture 20 (6): 323-328.
OUTLINE: Residents who planted a yard as part of a community shade tree program were more satisfied with the outcome than residents of the same neighbourhood who had not been associated with the program. The findings may have implications for the national urban forestry.
Sommer, R., F. Learey, J. Summit & M. Tirrell (1994). The social benefits of resident involvement in tree planting. Journal of Arboriculture 20 (3):170-175.
OUTLINE: Most research on public attitudes toward the urban forest has focused on various passive benefits from seeing or being around trees and plants. The present article describes the results obtained from a comparison of tree neighbourhoods in Fresno, Ca. City residents who planted their own street trees were more satisfied with the outcome than residents whose trees were plant by the city or and outside agency. Within the circumstances described in the study, those residents who paid for their trees were more satisfied with the outcomes than those who received them without extra charge from the city or from a voluntary organisation.
Sukopp, H. & R. Wittig (Eds) (1998). Stadtoekologie: ein Fachbuch fuer Studium und Praxis. Fischer, Stuttgart, pp. 474.
OUTLINE: This book is dealing with all aspect of urban ecology and related to human well-being. It provides guidelines for ecological urban development.
Sullivan, W.C. & F.E. Kuo (1996). Do trees strengthen urban communities, reduce domestic. violence? Forestry Report R8-FR 56 - January 1996.
OUTLINE: The authors are finding less violence in urban public housing where there are trees. Residents from buildings with trees report using more constructive, less violent ways of dealing with conflict in their homes. They report using reasoning more often in conflicts with their children, and they report significantly less use of severe violence. And in conflicts with their partners, they report less use of physical violence than do residents living in buildings without trees.
Talbot, J.F. & R. Kaplan (1984). Needs and fears, the response to trees and nature in the inner city. Journal of Arboriculture 10 (8): 222-228.
OUTLINE: Interviews were conducted with Detroit residents living in primarily Black low- and moderate-income areas, in order to assess the preferences of inner city residents for different types of natural areas. The results demonstrated that urban Blacks perceived a very high value in their contacts with nature. Being outdoors is not only seen as being enjoyable. It is also perceived as a very important part of life to a large majority of this sample. These findings clearly illustrate the value of nature to a population with relatively little opportunity to enjoy it, and whose interest in nature has previously been viewed with some scepticism. Areas with large amounts of undergrowth and with dense groupings of trees, however, received low ratings from this sample.
Tauchnitz, H. (1997). Warum Bäume an Strassen geplanzt werden. Stadt und Grün 46 (7): 469-477.
OUTLINE: This paper is dealing with the significance of street trees, which have been planted since centuries. The author points out why street trees are important to cities and is dealing with some conditions for city's tree development.
Taylor , A.F., A. Wiley, F.E. Kuo & W.C. Sullivan (1998). Growing up in the inner city, Green spaces as places to grow. Environment and Behavior 30 (1): 3-27.
OUTLINE: Children growing up in the inner city are at risk for a range of negative development outcomes. In relatively desolated spaces, levels of play and access to adults were approximately half as much as those found in spaces with more trees an grass, and the incidence of creative play was significantly lower in barren spaces than in relatively green spaces. Most neighbourhoods are less hospitable for play than in the past, and that as both parents work outside the home and cannot chauffeur children to organized play events or parks, children are trapped indoors with Nitendo or television. All children could benefit from nearby outdoor spaces that are attractive and supportive of developmentally important behaviours.
Taylor , A.F., F.E. Kuo & W.C. Sullivan (2002). Views of nature and self-discipline, evidence from inner city children. Journal of Environmental Psychology 22: 49-63.
OUTLINE: Children growing up in inner city are risk of academic underachievement, juvenile delinquency, teenage pregnancy and other important negative outcome. This paper explores whether children's self-discipline (concentrating, inhibiting initial impulses, and delaying gratification) might be enhanced by contact with nature. The findings of this research suggest that, for girls, green space immediately outside the home can help them lead more effective, self-disciplined lives. For boys, perhaps more green spaces are equally important. These findings help reinforce the importance of incorporating trees and grass in spaces for children. I
Taylor , A.F., F.E. Kuo, W.C. Sullivan (2001). Coping with ADD: the surprising connection to green play setting. Environment and Behavior 33 (1): 54-77.
Over 2 million children in the United States alone are struggling to cope with a chronic attentional deficit, Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD). ADD reduces children's attentional capacity and in doing so, has detrimental effects on many aspects of life. Attention Restoration Theory suggests that contact with everyday nature to be related to attention in adults. Is contact with everyday nature also related to the attentional functioning of children? This study examined whether contact with nature assists attentional functioning in children with ADD. Although the greenness of a child's residential setting was unrelated to the severity of ADD symptoms, the greenness of their play setting was related to symptom severity; ADD symptoms were milder for those children with greener play settings. Children who played in windowless ind oor settings had significant more severe symptoms than children who played in grassy outdoor spaces with or without trees did.
Todorova, A., S. Asakawa & T. Aikoh (2004). Preferences for and attitudes towards street flowers and Trees in Sapporo, Japan. Landscape and Urban Planning 69: 403-416.
OUTLINE: The benefits of street vegetation, in particular the importance of trees, for urban dwellers have been given wide attention. There is, however, a lack of research on flowers as an element of street vegetation. This paper explores preferences for various street-planting models, particularly those with different compositions of flowers, with or without trees. In conclusion, trees had the main effect on preferences and flowers were the most favoured element under the trees.
Ulrich, R.S. & R. Parsons (1992). Influences of passive experiences with plants on individual well-being and health. In, D. Relf (Ed.) The role of horticulture in human well-being and social development. Timber Press, Portland, pp. 93-105.
OUTLINE: A review on psychological benefits of horticulture.--- A large body of research has shown that the presence of trees and other large vegetation in urban settings enhances aesthetic liking or preference. Also, a growing number of studies have found that viewing nature scenes dominated by vegetation has beneficial effects on psychology and physiological well-being, and in certain situations can have positive effects on health-related indicators. In laboratory research, visual exposure to settings with vegetation has produced significant recovery from stress within only five minutes, as indicated by changes in physiological measure such as blood pressure and muscle tension.
Ulrich, R.S. (1984). View through a window may influence recovery from surgery. Science 224: 420-421.
OUTLINE: Patients undergoing cholecystectomy in a Pennsylvania hospital had postoperative care, with rooms which looked at a brown brick wall, or some deciduous trees. Rrecords were only examined for the period in the year when the trees bear leaves.Twenty-three surgical patients assigned to rooms with windows looking out on a natural scene had shorter postoperative hospital stays, received fewer negative evaluative comments in nurses' notes, and took fewer potent analgesics than 23 matched patients in similar rooms with windows facing a brick building wall.
Ulrich, R.S. (1984). The psychological benefits of plants. Garden 8 (6): 16-21.
OUTLINE: The author summarizes research into environmental psychology and suggests some ways to go in the future. Almost without exception people prefer natural scenes to cityscapes. The views of nature make people feel better and hold their interest more effectively. Such quantitative measure may help to fit vegetation into cost-benefit planning analyses and bring plants in increasing numbers to city sidewalks and spaces. Researches and [planners need to learn more about how people respond to views of "built” versus nature elements, in order to contribute to the design of more liveable urban settings.
Ulrich, R.S. (1986). Human responses to vegetation and landscapes. Landscape and Urban Planning 13: 29-44.
OUTLINE: A review on people's visual, aesthetic preferences for landscapes. American and European adult groups prefer nature more than urban and unspectacular natural views. The preference for urban scenes is usually increasing when trees and other vegetation are present. One of the suggestions is that trees and other vegetation can be linked directly to health and in turn related to economy benefits of visual quality.
Ulrich, R.S. (1999). Effects on health outcomes, theory and research. In, Cooper Marcus, C. & M. Barnes (Eds.) Healing gardens, therapeutic benefits and design recommendations. John Wiley, New York, pp. 27-85.
OUTLINE: A review on the research, benefits of nature for health, well-being and mental restoration in connection with gardens and health care facilities.
Ward Thompson, C. (1998). School playground design: a projective approach with pupils and staff. Landscape Research 20 (3): 124-140.
OUTLINE: This article summarises the result of a project carry out to elicit design ideas for two primary school playgrounds in Edinburgh . Pupils and staff at both schools were invited to respond to photographs of possible playground scenes and indicate how design elements important to them relate in spatial and functional terms. The study reveals significant differences between pupil and staff responses and between girls and boys. This study has revealed a much clearer understanding of the ways in which the two particular playgrounds in question need to be developed for maximum pupil and staff benefit. Although the ample of respondents was relatively small, there was a wealth of data obtained. It would be valuable to supplement this with data from a wider rang of schools and wider range of pupils.
Webb, R. (1998). Urban forestry in Singapore. Arboricultural Journal 22: 271-286.
OUTLINE: Trough progressive landscape and urban forestry policies over the past thirty years, Singapore has achieved its aim of becoming a green tropical city. The history of forest conservation and tree planting in Singapore is outlined.
Webb, R. (1999). Learning from urban forestry programmes in south East Asia. Arboricultural Journal 23 (1): 39-56.
OUTLINE: The concept of urban forestry in south East Asia is discussed. Tthe author is dealing with the need for coordination, public participation, the benefits of urban forest, aesthetic values, psychological values, air quality, erosion and water catchments and urban wildlife. It is important to understand that if city trees are to receive the popular and political support that are essential to fund a continual investment into tree planting and maintenance, then trees must be seen to have real benefits for the population as a whole, and promote a feeling of urban pride.
Whyte, W.H. (1980). The social life of small urban spaces. Project for Public Spaces, New York, pp.125.
OUTLINE: The book shows how people use streets, plaza, and small parks in New York, and considering ways of making city spaces more attractive for more people.Tres: "There are all sort of good reasons for trees, but for climatic reasons alone we should press for many more, big ones too, along the sidewalks and open spaces of the city. New York's new open space zoning has sharply stepped-up requirements: developers must provide a tree for every 25 feet of side walk. It must be at least 3,5 inches in diameter and planted flush with the ground. In plazas trees must be provided in proportion to the space (for a plaza of 5,000 feet, a minimum of six trees). Trees ought to related much more closely to sitting spaces than they usually are. Of the spaces we have studied, by far the best liked are those affording a good look at the passing scene and the pleasure of being comfortably under a tree while doing so" (p. 46-47)
Willis, K.G. & G.D. Garrod (1993). The contribution of trees and woodland to the value of property. Arboricultural Journal 17 (3): 211-219.
OUTLINE: Recent research into the effects of woodland on the value of property is presented. Reviews of techniques available to measure the amenity value of trees are followed by a brief description of the date sources. Trees and water feature have always been an important element in gardens designed for stately homes. Mature well stocked gardens with trees and shrubs, or views over the woodland, are often mentioned as a feature in estate agents sales particulars of conventional houses and cottages. In this study trees and woodlands added a statistically significant amount to house prices.
Wolf, K.L. (2003). Public response to the urban forest in inner-city business districts. Journal of Arboriculture 29 (3): 117-125.
This research evaluated the role of trees in consumer environment interactions, focusing on the district wide public goods provided by community forest. Four research questions provided a framework for the research design: 1) What is the relationship between street landscape and consumers perceptions of associated businesses? 2) Are there any differences in consumers patronage behaviour related to a shopping environment's visual amenities? 3) Does the presence of trees in retail (shops) environments influence what consumers would be willing to pay for products? 4) What demographic factors are associated with differences in district perceptions, patronage behaviour, and pricing valuation? Results suggest that consumer behaviour is positively correlated with streetscape greening on all of these cognitive and behavioural dimensions. Yet in many instances small business owners and managers overlook the contribution of trees to retail success.
Yang, J., J. McBride, J. Zhou and Z. Sun (2004). The urban forest in Beijing and its role in air pollution reduction. Urban Forestry & Urban Greening 3: 65-78.
OUTLINE: Tree planning has been proposed by the municipal government as a measure to alleviate air pollution in Beijing ( China ). This study examines that proposal. The study was designed to provide a more detailed analysis of the Beijing urban forest and its effect on air pollution. Four objectives were addressed in the Study: (1) to describe the current composition and structure of the Beijing ur ban forest; (2) to quantify the major air pollutants; (3) to quantify the biogenic volatile organic compound (a source of air pollutants) from the ur ban forest; (4) to calculate the sequestration of CO2.